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Nigerian Security Challenges and National Unity: Analyzing the Causes, Impact and Treatment

Awudu Angyu Daniel, Luka Jacob Jiwul,


Insecurity has become a household term in the body polity of the country. The present democratic dispensation of the country generally referred to as the fourth republic has brought Nigeria closer to systemic collapse characterized by multi-dimensional security challenges. The country has seen the emergence of groups such as Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) in the South-South, Boko Haram in the North-East, Odua People’s Congress (OPC) in the South-West and Egbessu Boys in the South-East for ‘regional protection’. Also, we are witnessing the emergence of ethnic militias, farmers and herders’ clashes, political thuggery and banditry in almost every part of the country. These groups continue to unleash terror and vibrate the foundation of the country through kidnapping for ransom, abduction of civilians, pipeline vandalization, ritual killings, bombing, armed robbery and ethnic militarization. Based on the above, this study aims at assessing the impact of the security challenges on Nigeria’s national unity and the possible solutions. It adopted a qualitative research method using content analysis and the Human Security Theory as its analytical framework. It reveals that with deep seated security challenges in the country, the nature of free interaction and cordial relationship among citizens has since given way to segregated settlements with constant mutual fear and suspicion, unhealthy rivalry and ethnic bias federal presence. The study therefore, concludes that a purposive well designed educational program by the government could be one of the ways to curb the ever-growing security threats in the country. Keywords: Security, National Security, Insecurity, National Unity.

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